Pharmaceutical opioids are depressant drugs which means that they slow down the messaging between the brain and the body. Doctors may prescribe pharmaceutical opioids to help people with pain management.
Pharmaceutical opioids include morphine, oxycodone, buprenorphine, methadone, hydromorphone, fentanyl, tapentadol, tramadol and codeine. Some preparations are immediate release while others are designed to be slow release. They may also be better known by a range of brand or trade names.
Generic Name Trade Name
Morphine MS Contin®, Kapanol®, MS Mono®, Sevredol®, Ordine®, Anamorph®
Oxycodone Oxynorm®, OxyContin®, Endone®, Proladone®, Targin®
Buprenorphine Suboxone®, Subutex®, Temgesic®, Buvidal®, Sublocade®,Norspan®
Methadone Biodone®, Methadone liquid®, Physeptone®
Hydromorphone Jurnista®, Dilaudid®
Fentanyl Durogesic®, Denpax®, Fenpatch®, Dutran®
What do they look like?
- Tablets or capsules
- Dissolved by placing under the tongue or inside the cheek
- Applied by patch
- Injected by a health professional
People may use pharmaceutical opioids for acute or short-term pain management. Some people may also use pharmaceutical opioids for the feeling of euphoria or to feel relaxed. Other short-term effects include:
- Small pupils
- Slurred and slow speech
- Slow breathing
- Decreased heart rate or palpitations
- Cold clammy skin
- Nausea / vomiting
- Stomach ache
- Difficulty urinating
People who inject pharmaceutical opioids are at higher risk of additional harms such as:
- Blood-borne viruses
- Bacterial and fungal infections
- Damage to the circulatory system
- Increased likelihood of overdose
Pharmaceutical opioids affect people differently depending on a range of factors including how much and what dose is taken, whether it is used with other drugs, and the individual characteristics of the person.
- Reduced sex drive
- Irregular periods
- Fertility problems
- Loss of appetite
- Decreased motivation
- Mood swings
The best option for people dependent on pharmaceutical opioids is opioid treatment which should be discussed with your doctor or local alcohol and drug treatment service. Withdrawal symptoms may be unpleasant, however they will lessen over time. Withdrawal symptoms include diarrhoea, stomach ache, leg cramps, nausea, sweats and chills, increased heart rate, low mood, anxiety, irritability, poor sleep and cravings.
- Spending a great deal of time getting, using, or recovering from the effects
- Using in greater amounts, or for longer than originally planned
- Needing to use more to get the same effect
- Having cravings, difficulties stopping/reducing use
- Experiencing withdrawal symptoms
- Social problems including relationship issues, financial problems, impacts on study or work and legal problems
Pharmaceutical opioid use may increase the risk of miscarriage, premature delivery, and low birth weight. Regular pharmaceutical opioid use throughout pregnancy can cause the new born baby to experience withdrawal symptoms. For people who are concerned about their pharmaceutical opioid use while pregnant or breastfeeding, it is important to talk to your doctor or health professional.
If so questions you may wish to ask are:
- What are the benefits of using them?
- What are the risks associated with using them?
- Are there any safer or better alternatives? (including non-medication-based treatments)
- What would happen if we did nothing? (i.e. did not use this medicine)
If you agree to using this medication, you may also wish to ask:
- How long should I take this medication?
- What are my chances of becoming physically or psychologically dependent upon this medicine?
- How difficult is it to stop using this medicine in the future?
Adis 24/7 Alcohol and Drug Support is a 24 hour, 7 day a week confidential support service for people in Queensland with alcohol and other drug concerns, their families and health professionals.
Talk to us. Anytime, anywhere.
1800 177 833
Signs of a pharmaceutical opioid overdose may include:
- Loss of consciousness
- Very slow breathing and/or gurgling sounds
- Slow heart rate
- Low body temperature
- Muscle twitching
- Cold clammy skin
- Blue lips and fingertips
- Skin with a bluish tinge
If a person has overdosed on pharmaceutical opioids call an ambulance on triple zero (000) and if available administer naloxone. If they have stopped breathing commence CPR. If they are breathing normally, place them into the recovery position and wait with the person until the ambulance has arrived.
Naloxone is a drug that can reverse an opioid overdose. It is short acting and non-addictive. A new formulation Nyxoid® is given into one nostril, while Narcan® and Prenoxad® is given by injection into the muscles of the thigh of the overdosed person. It is available as an over the counter medication or via a script from a prescriber. It is recommended that anyone using opioids should have immediate access to naloxone either to be administered to them in the event of an opioid overdose, or to administer to another person who has overdosed.
For more information about naloxone speak to your doctor, local needle and syringe program or contact Adis on 1800 177 833.
Adis - Understanding Pharmaceutical Opioids Fact Sheet
Adis fact sheet about pharmaceutical opioids.